The Sky Atlantic fantasy was named best drama series and picked up gongs for outstanding writing and directing to become the most-awarded narrative show in Emmy history.
The show, based on George RR Martin’s novels, took its tally to 38 Emmy wins, beating Frasier’s record of 37.
The People v OJ Simpson: American Crime Story, the television drama based on the murder trial of OJ Simpson, was named outstanding limited series, while Sarah Paulson, Courtney B Vance and Sterling K Brown won awards for their roles in the show.
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There was also British success at the ceremony in Los Angeles, with Emmys for Dame Maggie Smith, comedian John Oliver and BBC drama Sherlock.
Dame Maggie, who did not attend the show, was named best supporting actress in a drama series for her role in Downton Abbey, while Oliver’s Last Week Tonight won outstanding variety talk show.
Sherlock The Abominable Bride received the television movie award, with writer Steven Moffat referring on stage to The Great British Bake Off’s move from the BBC to Channel Four.
He told the audience: “Thank you to the BBC who we love above all bakery. British people will get that.”
Julia Louis-Dreyfus paid a heartfelt tribute to her father who died on Friday as she won an Emmy for her role in the political satire Veep, which was named best comedy series.
The American fought back tears as she collected the outstanding lead actress in a comedy series award.
“I’d like to dedicate this to my father William Louis-Dreyfus who passed away on Friday,” she said.
“I’m so glad that he liked Veep because his opinion was the one that really mattered.”
It is the fifth time in a row Louis-Dreyfus has won the award for her role in the US version of BBC comedy The Thick Of It.
Jeffrey Tambor won best lead actor in a comedy series for his role in the Amazon series Transparent and urged the television industry to provide more opportunities for transgender actors.
“Please give transgender talent a chance,” he said. “Give them auditions. Give them their stories.”
Paulson was joined at the Emmys by Marcia Clark, the prosecutor she portrayed in the People v OJ Simpson: American Crime Story. T he pair hugged after Paulson was named outstanding lead actress in a limited series for her performance.
On stage, she said described Clark as a “complicated, whip smart, giant-hearted mother of two” who dedicated herself to “righting an unconscionable wrong”.
Brown, who played prosecutor Christopher Darden in The People v OJ Simpson, beat his co-stars John Travolta and David Schwimmer to win best supporting actor in a limited series or movie.
Meanwhile, Courtney B Vance was named outstanding actor in a limited series for his portrayal of defence lawyer Johnnie Cochrane, beating co-star Cuba Gooding Jr who played OJ Simpson.
Rami Malek was named best lead actor in a drama series for his role in Mr Robot, while Tatiana Maslany won best actress in a drama series for her performance in BBC America series Orphan Black.
Tom Hiddleston, who starred in The Night Manager, presented the award for outstanding directing in a limited series or movie to the show’s director Susanne Bier.
The 68th Emmy Awards, hosted by comedian Jimmy Kimmel, took place at the Microsoft Theatre in Los Angeles.